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Bakufu: (bah coo foo). The government of the Shogun,


Bakumatsu: (bah coo ma tsoo). The final years of the Tokugawa Shogunate. 1853-1868.


"Black Ships": Refers to the ships of Commodore Perry; by extension, represents unwelcome foreign pressure.


Daimyo: (die myo) Daimyo were the rulers of the han of Tokugawa Japan.


Diet. The Japanese parliament, created in 1890.


Edo: (eh doe) Originally a small fishing village, Edo was the Tokugawa capital from 1603 to 1867. In 1868, the emperor was relocated to Edo; it became the new capital and was renamed Tokyo ("Eastern Capital.")


Fukoku Kyokei: (foo co coo kyo hay) "Enrich the Nation, Strengthen the Army." A Meiji period slogan used to spur the modernization of Japan.


Genro; Literally, "Original Elders." Refers to the older Meiji statesmen, namely: Ito Hirobumi, Kuroda Kiyotaka, Matsukata Masayoshi, Oyama Iwao, Saigo Tsugumkhi, Yamagata Aritomo, and InoueKaoru.


Hakodate: (hah co dah tay) One of two ports initially opened with the Treaty of Kanagawa, Hakodate is located in southern Hokkaido.


Han:  "Domain." The regions controlled by daimyo.


Meiji: (may gee) laterally, "Enlightened Rule." The reign name of Mutsuhito. Also the name of the period during which Matsuhito was emperor, which was 1868 to 1912.


Mikado: (me caw doe) A Japanese term for the Japanese emperor.


Mutsuhito: (moo tsoo he toe) Emperor Meiji's given name.


Ryukyu Islands: A chain of islands that stretches between Kyushu and Taiwan, the Ryukyus are part of Okinawa Prefecture. Also known as the Liuchiu Islands.


Sat-Cho: A combination of the han names "Satsuma" and "Choshu," these han allied with each other against the Tokugawa.


Shimoda: One of two ports initially opened under the terms of the Kanagawa Treaty, Shimoda is on the tip of the Izu peninsula, southwest of Tokyo.


Shishi: {she she) "Men of Spirit." A term for the samurai who opposed—often violently—the changes wrought upon Japan by both the bakumatsu Tokugawa and by the Meiji government. They also opposed opening the country to the West. Self-righteous and dogmatic, they were the predecessors to later ultranationalists.


Shizoku: (she zoe coo) A term for the samurai class.


Sonno Joi. (sewn no joe ee) "Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians.” This phrase was the foundation of the philosophy of the shishi.


Tokugawa: The family name of the last Shoguns. The Tokugawa, who ruled Japan from 1600 to 1867, imposed both a lasting peace and a policy of isolation on Japan.


Tozama (toe zah ma). "Outside Lord." Refers to the daimyo and han that were not aligned with the Tokugawa before the Battle of Shimonoseki.


Yokohama: Port city southwest of Tokyo; capital of Kanagawa Prefecture. As part of the Treaty of Kanagawa, Yokohama was opened to foreign trade in 1858.


Zaibatsu: Business and industrial conglomerates that developed through cooperation with the government.

Glossary    Chapter 3


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