6. Test Questions
1. Discuss with the students why the Japanese Constitution has not changed since its creation by an American team after World War II.
2. While West Germany diligently taught its populace the horrors of Nazi atrocities and the Holocaust, East Germany made little effort in that regard. The Japanese position is similar to that of East Germany, in that it downplays the aggressive nature of its actions in the war and shirks its responsibilities to teach the new generations of its past errors. What are the possible ramifications of this "willful amnesia" for Japan in Asia, and the world? What role did Nakasone play in regards to Japan's attitude towards its recent past? What role have prime ministers played?
3. How could Japan, after being ravaged by WWII, rebuild so quickly? Why did it take longer in other countries? What accounted for Japan's phenomenal success in the world marketplace?
4. If we had to summarize the successes of postwar Japan, what would they be?
5. If we had to summarize the failures of postwar Japan, what would they be?
6. What is the continuing impact of the American Occupation of Japan, particularly in terms of the disarmament of Japan, in both the Pacific and the world?
7. Former US Ambassador to Japan Mike Mansfield said the "the US - Japan bilateral relationship is the most important in the world, bar none." Do you agree with this view? Why or why not?
1. Although free of political ideology, Japanese trade policies are often considered expansionist "economic nationalism" by other countries. (T/F)
2. Senior government bureaucrats in modern Japan enjoy high prestige. (T/F)
3. Japan's neighbors are upset with and worried about Japan's attitude towards its role in WWII. (T/F)
4. Dissolution of the zaibatsu after WWII led to reduced government- business cooperation in the postwar period. (T/F)
5. Many postwar leaders were, like the Meiji leaders, relatively young at the end of WWII and not part of the old guard. (T/F)
6. Keiretsu, unlike zaibatsu, do not have a central holding company which controls its subsidiaries. (T/F)
7. Japan has fostered close ties between government and business since Meiji times. (T/F)
8. Part of Japan's modern success is credited to planning for long term gains rather than short term profits. (T/F)
9. Many nations are concerned about the "threat" Japan poses to world stability with its closed markets. (T/F)
10. The Maekawa Report was accepted by most sectors of the Japanese economy. (T/F)
11. According to Japanese law, it is illegal for senior bureaucrats to move into industry after retiring from government service. (T/F)
12. Prewar Japanese leaders were confident that they could win a war with America. (T/F)
13. The ratification of the San Francisco Peace Treaty restored Japan's sovereignty. (T/F)
14. One of Joseph Dodge's accomplishments was the establishment of MITI. (T/F)
15. Former Prime Minister Nakasone was the first Japanese leader to openly try to replace the Yoshida Doctrine. (T/F)
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Which of the following statements about technology transfers is NOT correct?
a. Technology transfers were crucial in Japan's postwar success.
b. Technology transfers were financed by MITI.
c. Vital technology was imported to Japan, setting a foundation for postwar growth.
d. Crucial technologies were aggressively sought by MITI.
e. Technology transfers were promoted and approved by the Japanese government.
2. Economic resurgence has not been equally shared by all Japanese. Although the people enjoy a standard of living higher than their Asian neighbors, Japanese social reality is that:
a. there is a lack of available goods and services.
b. the urban population explosion, coupled with the scarcity of land, has resulted in stratospheric housing costs.
c. the Meiji slogan fukoku kyohei (Enrich the Nation, Strengthen the Army) has re-emerged.
d. there is a massive increase in violent crime.
e. drug abuse is a serious social problem.
3. Which of the following did NOT play a role in the development of Japan's postwar military policy?
a. US defense interests.
b. Asian concerns over Japanese remilitarization.
c. Japan's powerful farm lobby.
d. The Yoshida Doctrine.
e. Japanese nationalism.
4. The 1973 Oil Crisis was significant to Japan's economy because:
a. Japan was forced to deplete its domestic oil resources.
b. of all the industrialized nations, Japan was the most dependent on foreign oil.
c. it initiated an era of high growth for Japan.
d. excessive oil supplies brought double-digit inflation.
e. All of the above.
5. The second Oil Crisis (1979-80) had less impact on Japan because:
a. domestic demand grew to take up the slack caused by a decrease in exports.
b. Japan successfully developed new domestic oil reserves.
c. oil prices did not rise significantly.
d. the government successfully contained inflation.
e. Japan was no longer using oil.
6. The Japanese economy is the second largest in the world, and yet Japan still plays a relatively minor role in international politics. Which of the following is NOT a reason for this low level of international involvement?
a. Dependence on consensus-making results in slow, "reactive" international policies.
b. The Japanese experience in WWII led to a preference for pacifism and for non-involvement in foreign politics.
c. Japanese caution in international dealings is a natural consequence of its dependence on trade.
d. There is little factionalism or dissent in Japanese politics.
e. All of the above are reasons for Japan's lack of involvement.
7. What was Nakasone's approach to the Yoshida Doctrine?
a. He sought to maintain the status quo.
b. He moved to strengthen it by further reduction in military spending.
c. He attempted to replace it with his own vision of domestic policy and Japan's international role.
d. He ignored it.
e. None of the above.
8. The Maekawa Report recommended that Japan:
a. increase its savings rate and imports.
b. reduce foreign aid to increase capital available for investment.
c. stimulate domestic demand and increase leisure time.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.
9. The consensus among Japanese politicians and scholars regarding Japan's role on the international stage is that:
a. Japan is the world leader and should assume its new responsibilities.
b. Japan is moving up to the Number One position.
c. Japan is still Number Two, the "vice-president" and does not currently have the qualifications to be Number One.
d. Japan should withdraw from the world political scene.
e. There is no consensus
10. The Yoshida Doctrine was a careful balance between:
a. nationalist and pacifist interests
b. national security interests and international pressures
c. economic and miltaiy concerns in Japan.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.