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Bureaucratic Capitalists:  Originally a term for a phenomenon associated with the Republican Era in China (usually 1928-1945). The term reflects both the traditional importance of the civil servant in society and also the newly recognized power associated with the accumulation of wealth through capital investment. Bureaucratic capitalism represented the pinnacle of power in Republican China, where four wealthy extended families maintained dominance in both politics and economics and utilized that dominance to influence the domestic and international policies of their nation in both spheres.


Education Mama: A common slang reference to (often overly zealous) Japanese mothers who drive their children to high academic achievement. Mothers usually play a large role in their children's education, by identifying the best school and ensuring that their children study hard.In the Japanese educational system, all schools are ranked relative to one another. Entry to one of the top universities virtually guarantees a job at a prestigious firm after graduation. This means that children must go to the "best" high school, to increase their chances of entry to a top university. In order to get into the "best" high school, one must attend the "best" junior high. The situation is so extreme that there is stiff competition for entry to the "best" nursery schools!


GDP: Acronym for Gross Domestic Product refers to the value of all goods and services produced by labor and property during a year within a territory.


Import Substitution: The promotion of domestic manufacture through special import tariffs, or through subsidies to domestic industries, or a combination of the two. This encourages the growth of developing industry by protecting it from foreign competition.


International Monetary Fund (IMF): Part of the original Bretton Woods set of global institutions, the IMF provides international credit in order to develop stable exchange rates and world-wide fiscal cooperation.  


Meritocracy: A term that has been coined to indicate bureaucratic advancement based on ability (rather than birth). Meritocracies are characterized by civil service and advancement based on an individual's achievements. Ideally, a meritocracy is open to all, regardless of gender, race, religion, status, wealth, birth, etc.


NIE: Acronym for Newly Industrialized Economy. These states have industrialized only within the 20th or 21st  century, hence the name. In Asia, commonly (but not exclusively) applied to Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. These four were also known as "the Little Dragons" or "the Little Tigers" for their tenacity in the world marketplace and their ambitious (and successful) rise.


Osaka: A major city in Western Japan, Osaka is Japan's third largest city, with only Tokyo and Yokohama exceeding it. Osaka and the Osaka-Kobe belt are centers for finance and industry, second only to the Tokyo-Yokohama zone. Some of the oldest archaeological sites in Japan are in the Osaka region. The site of many temples and long a center for trade with China, it was also Toyotomi Hideyoshi's base of operations and site of his castle. Although it burned down in 1368, a new Osaka castle was built in 1931 and serves as a park and museum. During Tokugawa times, literature and theater flourished in the Osaka area. In addition to its financial importance, modern Osaka has numerous universities, libraries, and museums.


Scholar-Bureaucrat In the traditional Chinese Confucian hierarchy, the top grouping of the four classes of commoners were those who were both Confucian scholars and civil servants. The traditional Chinese examination system required all civil servants be Confucian scholars; however, not all scholars were in government service. In order to be considered a member of the most prestigious class, a man had to be both classically trained and officially appointed by the central government


South Korea


Park Chung Hee: (pahk choong he) 1917-1979. President of South Korea from 1963 to 1979. Park entered the Japanese military academy in 1940, graduated in 1944, and served for one year as a second lieutenant in the Japanese army. After WWII, he entered the South Korean Constabulary. In 1947, Park was recruited by communists and participated in an anti-government conspiracy. He was discovered and sentenced to death. However, he saved his life by turning informant; the information he gave led to the deaths of many communist operatives. Reinstated in the army after the Korean War broke out, he performed well and rose to the rank of major-general.Even before Syngman Rhee was deposed. Park and other dissidents had been planning a coup. They acted on 16 May 1961, ousting the unprepared civilian government of Chang Myon. Park became acting president in 1962 and president in 1963. He remained president until his assassination in 1979. Although Korea prospered economically under Park, his politics went from oppressive to regressive as he flouted the constitution and eventually replaced it with his own authoritarian version. He had become increasingly autocratic and withdrawn when he was assassinated by his own Korean CIA director on 26 October 1979. Park was succeeded by Prime Minister Choi Kyu Ha.


Syngman Rhee: 1875-1965. Syngman Rhee was first educated in missionary schools in Korea. Later, he studied at George Washington, Harvard, and Princeton universities. He fought tirelessly for the Korean cause both at home and abroad.Rhee's efforts for his country began at the end of the nineteenth century; he was jailed in 1897 for his involvement with the reformist Independence Club. While in jail he converted to Christianity. He worked for Korean independence during Japanese rule, first in Korea as a YMCA teacher and missionary, then, from 1913 to 1940, in Hawaii. In 1919, Rhee was selected president of the Shanghai-based Korean Provisional Govemment-in-Exile. Due to his poor relations with the Provisional Government, Rhee was impeached in 1925, but he refused to recognize this action.During WWII, he was in Washington DC, where he won many admirers for his staunch anti-Soviet and anti-communist stances. He returned to Korea in 1945, and was elected the first president of the Republic of Korea in 1948. Re-elected in 1952, 1956, and 1960, he never gave up his desire to "march north" and forcibly unify the country. Although widely respected by the Korean people, he was unable to work with others, and had little understanding of economics. These two factors retarded Korea's postwar growth, and were cause for growing opposition to him and his rule. His supporters became increasingly dependant on fraud and coercion to keep him in power. All this, along with blatant election fraud in the 1960 elections, popular demonstrations, and police brutality, led to his resignation. He died in exile in Honolulu in 1965.


ROK: Abbreviation for Republic of Korea, which is South Korea.


ROK-Japan Normalization Treaty: Signed on 22 June 1965. Earlier attempts at normalization had failed for many reasons, including Korea's demands for enormous reparations and Syngman Rhee's uncompromising nature.The treaty covered a broad range of issues. Central to the Koreans was formal nullification of all agreements and treaties between Japan and Korea which were signed on or before 22 April 1910-the date of Korea's annexation by Japan. The treaty also recognized the ROK as the sole legitimate government on the peninsula. Japan agreed to give permanent resident status to all Koreans living in Japan since prior to WWII. Japan agreed to pay only a fraction of the reparations demanded earlier, and the treaty gave Japanese fishermen access to Korean waters. These provisions were denounced by the opposition parties and were cause for student demonstrations. However, the treaty also stipulated that Japan would provide capital and loans, as well as open up opportunities for trade and investments.The depth of mistrust between Japan and Korea is illustrated by the fact that it was not until twenty years after the Japanese colonial government left Korea that a treaty was signed. Although relations are better now than they were earlier in this century, there is still a powerful undercurrent of tension across the Korea Strait


Second Republic. The short-lived Second Republic under Chang Myon lasted only from 19 August 1960 to 18 May 1961. After the fall of Syngman Rhee, elections were held and Chang Myon was elected as prime minister to Korea's first democratic government. After a period of initial uncertainty, the Chang cabinet was beginning to achieve and progress when, on 16 May 1961, General Park Chung Hee led a successful military coup against the democratically-elected civilian government. This was the end of the Second Republic and the start of the Third Republic under Park.


Seoul: First selected as the capital of the Yi in 1394, Seoul is today the capital of the Republic of (South) Korea. With mountains in the north, Seoul's growth has spread both to the south, across the Han River, and to the east. West from Seoul lie both Inchon and the Yellow Sea.Although Seoul expanded during the Japanese occupation, the city was virtually demolished during the Korean War. Since the end of the war, Seoul has grown rapidly, with elevated highways, tunnels, and subways built to handle the increasing traffic congestion.Seoul is central to all aspects of modern South Korea. It has a plethora of churches, company headquarters, hospitals, hotels, museums, and universities. Its selection as the site for the 1988 Summer Olympics was widely viewed as a crowning achievement in the city's (and the country's) postwar rebirth and growth.


USAMGIK: Acronym for United States Army Military Government in Korea.Won : The Korean unit of currency. Southeast Asia


ASEAN: Acronym for Association of Southeast Asian Nations, formed on 8 August 1967. Member states are Brunei (joined 1984), Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Burma (Myanmar). In contrast to NATO, the Warsaw Pact, and SEATO, all of which were formed for mutual defense purposes, the stated goal of ASEAN is promotion of economic development and cooperation. ASEAN, however, has been more significant as a political than an economic organization.


Brunei: An oil-exporting sultanate on the island of Borneo, Brunei gained its independence from Great Britain on 1 January 1984. It joined ASEAN that very month.   Brunei faces the South China Sea. Malay is the primary language; English and Chinese are also spoken. Islam is the official religion. The population of Brunei is 65% Malay and 20% Chinese.Although it also has rubber and timber, Brunei's primary exports are petroleum and natural gas, giving the country one of the world's highest per capita incomes. A wide range of social services are provided without charge to Brunei's citizens. The Sultan of Brunei is both its leader and one of the richest men in the world.


Lee Kuan Yew: (lee kwahn you) Bom 1923. Prime Minister of Singapore from 1959 to 1990; popularly known as "Uncle Harry." His rule was often likened to that of a traditional Confucian bureaucrat, as he shaped policies in accordance with his paternalistic view of what was best for the state. One of his better-known statements is, "we decide what is right; never mind what the people think." Regardless, Singapore's economy flourished under Lee.


Glossary     Chapter 7

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