General

 

Allies: Also known as the Allied powers. The victors of WWII, namely, China, France, the UK, the USA, and the USSR. This alliance came about as a response to the Axis of the Tripartite Pact. These countries are also the permanent members of the UN Security Council; this is a direct result of this wartime marriage of convenience.

 

Axis: Also known as the Axis powers. The vanquished of WWII, namely, Germany, Italy, and Japan. The Axis countries were those that signed the Tripartite Pact.

 

Bandung Conference: In response to the growing polarization of international politics in the postwar period, a group of Asian countries -India, Burma, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka)-invited the PRC to attend the first meeting of non-aligned countries. This conference was held in Bandung, Indonesia, in the spring of 1955. In all, twenty-nine African and Asian countries (comprising what came to be known as the "Third World") attended. Among those attending theconference were China's Zhou Enlai, India's Nehru, Indonesia's Sukarno, and Egypt's Nasser.

 

British Malaya: A former British colony in Southeast Asia, developed from what had been the Straits Settlements in modern Malaysia, was formed from parts of Malaya, British Borneo, and Sarawak after WWII. Singapore was part of both British Malaya and Malaysia, until it became an independent state in 1965.

 

Douglas MacArthur: (1880-1964). After graduating first in the West Point class of 1903, Douglas MacArthur went on tours of duty in the Philippines and Japan, then to WW I Europe. Later, he became the chief military advisor to the Philippines. In July 1941, MacArthur was appointed commander of US forces in the Far East. During the war, MacArthur's greatest achievement was the island-hopping counterattack in New Guinea and the Philippines. MacArthur accepted the Japanese surrender on board the USS Missouri on 2 September 1945. Presiding over the reshaping and democratization of postwar Japan as Supreme Commander of Allied Powers {SCAP), MacArthur implemented numerous reforms, including the new constitution. In 1950, when the Korean War erupted, MacArthur commanded the UN forces in Korea. MacArthur's proposed strategy was to expand the war and attack China; Truman wanted the war limited to Korea. President Truman prevailed, relieving MacArthur of command in 1951. This was MacArthur's final "lesson in democracy* for Japan—civilian authority is more important than military authority'.

 

SCAP: Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, namely, General Douglas MacArthur.

 

Tripartite Pact: Signed in September 1940 by Germany, Italy, and Japan, this military alliance was primarily a marriage of convenience for Japan. However, it further influenced Allied opinion against Japan.

 

Indonesia

 

Diplomasi: A program to negotiate with the Dutch for independence during the Indonesian revolution.

 

Pemuda; (peh moo duh) Literally, "youth." Refers to the young who participated in, and were instrumental to, the Indonesian revolution.

 

Republic of Indonesia: Taking advantage of Japan's defeat and the absence of the Dutch, Sukarno and Mohammed Hatta proclaimed an independent Republic on 17 August 1945. The Dutch, with the aid of the British, tried to re-establish control. However, Holland ultimately granted independence to its former colony on 27 December 1949.

 

Japan

 

Article Nine: The article in the postwar "peace constitution" which forbids Japanese rearmament. It reads as follows: Article 9. Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes.(2) In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land, sea, end air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized. In spite of the seemingly clear wording of Article Nine, Japan has created what it calls its Self Defense Forces (SDF). The debate over the legality of the SDF has gone on since the SDF were formed. The ultimate conclusion is that war in self-defense is not forbidden, so defensive armament is constitutional. During most of the post war period, public opinion polls consistently showed the majority of the Japanese people to be against any amendment to Article Nine that might increase armament. Such polls also showed that most Japanese favor maintaining the SDF, regardless of the possible unconstitutionality of the SDF's existence. More recently, public interest in changing the constitution has grown, but formal alteration of the constitution remains a formidably difficult and slow process politically.

 

Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere: A wartime slogan used by the Japanese government to promote a politically and economically unified Asia, led by Japan and free from Western influence- The "members" of the sphere were Japan, China, Manchukuo, French Indochina, and the Dutch East Indies. Although the sphere was primarily a justification for Japanese expansion, some hailed the sphere as a counter to Western imperialism in Asia and as a means to restore control of Asia to Asians. Others said that it was an excuse to defend Japanese imperialism inAsia. In any case, the idea of an Asia ruled by Asians undoubtedly influenced subsequent nationalist movements in the region.

 

Hiroshima: (he roe she ma) On 6 August 1945, the world's first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, demolishing about 90% of the city and ultimately killing some 200,000 people. Peace Memorial Park and related buildings are now at what was the epicenter of the explosion. Every year there is a commemorative ceremony on August 6.

 

Konoe Fumimaro: (ko no eh foo me ma roe) 1891-1945. Konoe advocated Asian self-determination and opposed Western involvement in Asia. Prime minister in 1937-1939 and 1940-1941, his first cabinet presided over the opening of the Sino-Japanese war of 1937-1945; his second cabinet inaugurated the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere. Vice prime minister in the first postwar cabinet, Konoe worked for a new Japanese constitution. However, he was indicted as a war criminal. On the day he was to report to Occupation authorities for detention and trial, he committed suicide.

 

Nagasaki: (nah gah sah key) On 9 August 1945, an atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki, where Nagasaki Shipyards was located. About 122,000 people were killed, and most of the city was destroyed. The site of foreign trade before and during the Edo period, Nagasaki is once again a center for shipbuilding. It is also noted for historic Western residences and as a deep-sea port.

 

Showa Emperor: (show wah) 1902-1989; regent from 1921; reigned 1926-1989. Better known in the West by his given name of Hirohito. An avid marine biologist whose studies made contributions to the advance of science, the Showa Emperor claimed disinterest in politics. However, it is widely agreed that he played a pivotal role in both the suppression of the February 26 Incident and the decision to surrender in 1945. What role he had in the militarism of the 1930s and 1940s is debated. He said that as a constitutional monarch, all he could do was approve the legislation presented before him, as was required by law—his opinion was irrelevant. On the other hand, there are those who see a more active wartime role for him. In the postwar period, the Showa Emperor became the first reigning Japanese emperor to travel abroad. He also visited every Japanese prefecture except Okinawa (for safety reasons). He died of cancer on 7 January 1989.

 

 Philippines

 

Hukbalahap (who-k bah lah hop) The People's Anti-Japanese Army; also known as the Huks. "Huk" comes from Tagalog "hukbo" (army). The Huks combined peasant agrarian reformers witli WWII nationalists into a postwar rebellion (1946-1952) against the Philippine elite. The Huks* association with Philippine Communists drew American attention and resulted in increased aid to Ramon Magsaysay, who broke the guerrilla movement in 1953.

 

Ramon Magsaysay: (mahg sigh sigh) 1907-1957. President of the Philippines from 1953 until his untimely death in a plane crash, Magsaysay represented the common people. His accomplishments included ending the Huk rebellion, working for major reforms in land distribution and political institutions, and encouraging bright young reformers from commoner background. See Chapter 9.

 

Tao: (tah' oh) Literally, "man." Refers to Philippine peasants.

 

Vietnam

 

Bao Dai: (bao dye) Born 1914; reigned 1926-1945. Last emperor of the Vietnamese Nguyen dynasty 0802-1945).

 

Democratic Republic of Vietnam: (DRV) Established by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi on 2 September 1945. The Japanese invaded Vietnam on 9 March 1945, ousting the French. With the defeat of the Japanese in August, the Viet Minh moved into the power void thus created, ended colonial rule, and abolished the traditional monarchy. However, the French tried to retake their old colony. Thirty years of war later, Vietnam was finally unified under Vietnamese (not foreign) rule. See Chapters 9,11.

 

Dien Bien Phu: The site of a decisive battle in Vietnam's war against the French (1945-1954).The French planned to use Dien Bien Phu as a base for disrupting Viet Minh operations in Laos, and poured 11,000 troops into their fortifications there. General Vo Nguyen Giap took advantage of this troop concentration and delivered a powerful blow to French forces. After surrounding the French base with his troops and heavy artillery, Giap launched an assault on 13 March 1954. The fighting favored the Viet Minh, and on 7 May, the French headquarters was taken. With more than 10,000 prisoners in Viet Minh hands, the French conceded defeat in their attempt to control Vietnam.

 

Vo Nguyen Giap: (voe win yahp) Born 1910. Family name is Vo, but properly referred to as General Giap. Active in communist organizations since the early 1930s, Vo Nguyen Giap rose in party ranks during WWII and was chosen by Ho Chi Minh to command the Vietnamese Liberation Army. His ideas on "people's war* became the strategy which ousted the French (and later, the Americans) from Vietnam. In the 1980s, Vo Nguyen Giap's importance waned, and in1982, he lost his seat on the Politburo. See Chapter 11,

Chapter 5 Glossary