Emilio Aguinaldo: 1869-1964. Prominent nationalist and a leader of the independence movements against Spain and America. Captured by US forces in 1901, he had no role in politics thereafter. Eventually granted amnesty by the US, he lived out his life as a respected leader of the early nationalist movements,
Creoles: Spaniards born in a Spanish colony (such as the Philippines).
Filipino: A term used for natives of the Philippines, most of whom are of Malayan descent.
Ilustrados: Spanish-educated Filipinos, the elite of Filipino society.
Katipunan (kah tea poo nahn) The shortened name of a peasant-based nationalist society. Founded in 1892 by Andres Bonifacio (1863-1897), this semi-secret society led the rebellions against Spain and the US.
Mestizos: Refers to Filipinos born of mixed heritage, usually a Spanish father and a Philippine mother.
Partido Nacionalista: Officially established in 1907 as an alternative to the US-sanctioned Partido Federal, the Nacionalista (Nationalist) Party was a coalition of Filipino elite associations. The Nacionalistas were based in Manila and opposed to American dominance of the Philippines. The party called for immediate and unconditional independence for the Philippines.The Partido Nacionalista remained virtually unopposed in Filipino domestic politics until 1946. After WWII, a former member of the party, Manuel Roxas, formed the Partido Liberal and won the first free presidential election. A loose coalition of Nacionalistas andLiberales then dominated Philippine politics until 1972, when the Nationalistas became inactive under martial law imposed by then leader, Ferdinand Marcos. Later, the Nacionalista Party, headed by Juan. Enrile, again became part of a coalition of political parties under the government of Corazon Aquino.
Peninsulares. Refers to Spaniards in a colony who were born in Spain (as opposed to the colonial-born Creoles).
Philippine-American War 1899-1902. For the US, this was a colonial insurrection; for the Philippines, it was a continuation of the struggle for independence against colonial overlords.In February 1899, fighting broke out between US and Filipino forces. Although the US suffered setbacks in 1900, the capture of guerrilla leader Aguinaldo in March 1901 paved the way for eventual American victory. Both sides suffered heavy casualties. Civilians included, the Philippine loss ratio was over 50 to 1.
Philippine Revolution: 1896-1898. A revolution against the Spanish, launched byKatipunan and led by Andres Bonifacio (1862-1897) and Emilio Aguinaldo. The success of this rebellion, combined with the Spanish-American War, drove the Spanish from the Philippines.
Manuel Quezon: (1878-1944). Dominant native political leader and statesman during the American colonial occupation of the Philippines. An Ilustrado, Quezon came from a loyalist family and consequently did not take part in the Filipino independence movement against theSpanish. However, he was active against the Americans. After imprisonment by US authorities, Quezon became politicized, joined the Partido Nacionalista, was elected to the Filipino assembly, where he helped to influence American colonial policies. Elected and reelected to the first presidency of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935 and 1941, Quezon had to flee the islands when the Japanese invaded in 1942. He died in Washington, DC, from tuberculosis.
Jose Rizal: (1861-1896). A patriotic Filipino novelist whose execution sparked the Philippine Revolution of 1896-1898.
Manuel Roxas: (1894-1948). As a member of the Nacionalista Party, Roxas was elected to The Philippines Assembly in the 1920s, where he became Speaker of the Assembly. He opposed Quezon, although they were members of the same party. When the Japanese invaded, Roxas was captured by them and forced to take part in their puppet-government. However, he used this position to assist the Filipino underground. When independence was granted in 1946, Roxas waselected the first President. After two years of an administration marked by corruption, Roxas died in office.
Spanish-American War: 1898. The US victory established American control of Guam, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico; Cuba gained independence from Spain as a result of this war.
Tagalog: (tah gah log) A major language of the northern Philippines and one of the two official languages (the other is English). Until the middle of the twentieth century, Tagalog was rarely spoken outside of the island of Luzon. Since 1960, Tagalog has been the most widely spoken language of the Philippines