Comintern: Abbreviation for the Third Communist International. This group was founded in in the USSR in 1919. It was formed to coordinate communist parties worldwide.
French Indochina: Refers to the area of French colonialism in Southeast Asia: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and part of southern China. "Indochina" refers to Indian and Chinese influences in the area. However, because the term "Indochina" ignores indigenous culture and is also a reminder of French imperialism. It has fallen into disuse. Usually, the more neutral "Southeast Asia" is employed. Although "French Indochina" is useful as a historical term, that area iscommonly called "mainland (or peninsular) Southeast Asia.
"Manchukuo: The name of the puppet state set up and controlled by the Japanese in Manchuria. The Mukden Incident set the stage for the establishment of Manchukuo. The head of state was Puyi, the deposed emperor of China. Manchukuo existed from 1932 to 1945.
Manchuria: An area of northeastern China. Rich in natural resources, Manchuria was an area of contention among imperial powers. It is also the homeland of the Manchus, who established the Qing dynasty.
Marco Polo Bridge Incident: On the night of 7 July 1937, shots were fired at a railroad bridge southwest of Beijing. Whether the initial fire came from Japanese or Chinese forces remains unclear to this day, but there is no doubt that this precipitated all-out war in China.
Mukden Incident: Also known as the Manchurian Incident Refers to the bombing of train tracks on 18 September 1931 by officers of the Kwantung Army. Blaming the Chinese and citing self-defence, the Japanese Army advanced, ultimately occupying Manchuria and establishing the puppet state of Manchukuo.
Nanjing Massacre: Also known as the Rape of Nanjing. In December 1937, Japanese troops invaded Nanjing and brutalized the population. Although this incident has been downplayed in Japan, it remains fresh in Chinese minds and affects Sino-Japanese relations to this day.Nationalism: The sense of unity and feeling of identity felt by a group of people and characterized by shared culture, language, territory, and traditions.